Sunday, May 24, 2020

Positive vs. Normative Analysis

While economics is largely an academic discipline, it is quite common for economists to act as business consultants, media analysts, and advisers on government policy. As a result, its very important to understand when economists are making objective, evidence-based statements about how the world works and when they are making value judgments about what policies should be enacted or what business decisions should be made. Positive Analysis Descriptive, factual statements about the world are referred to as positive statements by economists. The term positive isnt used to imply that economists always convey good news, of course, and economists often make very, well, negative-positive statements. Positive analysis, accordingly, uses scientific principles to arrive at objective, testable conclusions. Normative Analysis On the other hand, economists refer to prescriptive, value-based statements as normative statements. Normative statements usually use factual evidence as support, but they are not by themselves factual. Instead, they incorporate the opinions and underlying morals and standards of those people making the statements. Normative analysis refers to the process of making recommendations about what action should be taken or taking a particular viewpoint on a topic. Examples of Positive vs. Normative The distinction between positive and normative statements is easily shown via examples. The statement: The unemployment rate is currently at 9 percent. is a positive statement, since it conveys factual, testable information about the world. Statements such as: The unemployment rate is too high.The government must take action in order to reduce the unemployment rate. are normative statements, since they include value judgments and are of a prescriptive nature. Its important to understand that, despite the fact that the two normative statements above are intuitively related to the positive statement, they cannot be logically inferred from the objective information provided. (In other words, they dont have to be true given that the unemployment rate is at 9 percent.) How to Effectively Disagree With an Economist People seem to like disagreeing with economists (and, in fact, economists often seem to enjoy disagreeing with one another), so its important to understand the distinction between positive and normative in order to disagree effectively. To disagree with a positive statement, one must bring other facts to the table or question the economists methodology. In order to disagree with the positive statement about unemployment above, for example, one would have to make the case that the unemployment rate isnt actually 9 percent. One could do this either by providing different unemployment data or by performing different calculations on the original data. To disagree with a normative statement, one can either dispute the validity of the positive information used to reach the value judgment or can argue the merits of the normative conclusion itself. This becomes a more murky type of debate  since there is no objective right and wrong when it comes to normative statements. In a perfectly organized world, economists would be pure scientists who perform only positive analysis and exclusively convey factual, scientific conclusions, and policymakers and consultants would take the positive statements and develop normative recommendations. In reality, however, economists often play both of these roles, so its important to be able to distinguish fact from opinion, i.e. positive from normative.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Test-Optional Colleges that Dont Require SATs

If you got low SAT scores or low ACT scores, or if you simply didnt take the exam in time for application deadlines, realize that hundreds of test-optional colleges do not require entrance exams as part of their admissions applications. The list below is just a sampling of the roughly 850 four-year colleges that do not require the SAT or ACT. I have, however, included most of the highly selective schools that dont require scores. To see a complete list, visit the FairTest website. Also be sure to check out my list of 20 Great Colleges for Students with Low SAT Scores. Colleges dont use test scores for many reasons. Some technical schools, music schools and art schools dont see the ACT and SAT as good measures of the types of skills they require. Other schools recognize that the SAT and ACT limit their applicant pools and give an unfair advantage to students from schools or families that can afford test prep courses. You will also find on the FairTest list that many schools with strong religious affiliations do not require standardized tests. Admissions policies change frequently, so check with each school for the latest testing guidelines. Also, realize that some of the schools below are test-optional only for students who meet certain GPA or class rank requirements. Schools that dont require the ACT or SAT for some or all applicants American UniversityArizona State University at TempeArkansas State UniversityAustin Peay State UniversityBard CollegeBates CollegeBennington CollegeBowdoin CollegeCalifornia State University at Bakersfield, Chico, Dominguez Hills, East Bay, Fresno, Fullerton, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Monterey Bay, Northridge, Sacramento, San Bernardino, San Marcos, and StanislausBrandeis UniversityBryn Mawr CollegeClark UniversityCollege of the AtlanticCollege of the Holy CrossConnecticut CollegeDenison UniversityDePaul UniversityDickinson CollegeDrew UniversityEast Tennessee State UniversityEastern Kentucky UniversityFairfield UniversityFranklin and Marshall CollegeFurman UniversityGeorge Mason UniversityGettysburg CollegeGoddard CollegeGoucher CollegeGuilford CollegeGustavus Adolphus CollegeHampshire CollegeHobart and William Smith CollegesHofstra UniversityIllinois CollegeIndiana State UniversityIthaca CollegeJuniata CollegeKansas State University (scores required for out-of-state applicants)Kings CollegeKnox CollegeLake Forest CollegeLawrence UniversityLewis Clark CollegeLoyola College in MarylandMarist CollegeMiddle Tennessee State UniversityMiddlebury College (SAT2 required if SAT1 is not used)Minnesota State UniversityMount Holyoke CollegeMuhlenberg CollegeNazareth CollegeNew School (scores required for some programs)Northern Arizona UniversityOhio State University at ATI Wooster, Mansfield, Marion, Newark (scores required for out-of-state applicants)Oklahoma State University, StillwaterOld Dominion UniversityPitzer CollegePresbyterian CollegeProvidence CollegeRobert Morris UniversityRoger Williams UniversityRollins CollegeSt. Johns College (Annapolis and Sante Fe)Sarah Lawrence CollegeSewanee: The University of the SouthSmith CollegeSouth Dakota State UniversityState University of New York at PotsdamStetson UniversityStonehill CollegeSusquehanna UniversityTemple UniversityUnion CollegeUniversity of Alaska at Anchorage, Fairbanks and SoutheastUniversity of ArizonaUniver sity of Arkansas at Fortsmith, Little Rock, Monticello and Pine BluffUniversity of Idaho at MoscowUniversity of Kansas at LawrenceUniversity of Maine at Augusta, Farmington, Ft. Kent and Presque IsleUniversity of Minnesota at Crookston, Duluth and MorrisUniversity of MississippiUniversity of Montana at Missoula and WesternUniversity of Nebraska at Kearney and LincolnUniversity of Nevada at Las Vegas and RenoUniversity of Texas at Arlington, Brownsville, Dallas, El Paso, Pan American, San Antonio and TylerUrsinus CollegeWake Forest UniversityWashington CollegeWashington and Jefferson CollegeWesleyan UniversityWestern Kentucky UniversityWheaton College (MA)Wittenberg UniversityWhitworth UniversityWorcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) When applying to schools, be sure to read their policies carefully. Some state schools on the list do require scores from out-of-state applicants. Other schools dont require scores for admissions, but they do use the scores for awarding academic scholarships.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Succubus Heat CHAPTER 11 Free Essays

string(39) " end of his knowledge on this subject\." Cody asked the obvious question. â€Å"So†¦if he’s gone †¦how did that happen?† Hugh rubbed his eyes. â€Å"He was summoned. We will write a custom essay sample on Succubus Heat CHAPTER 11 or any similar topic only for you Order Now † â€Å"Oh, shit,† said Peter. His fun-in-the-sun joy disappeared. He looked as grim as Hugh and me. â€Å"That changes everything.† I glanced between him and Hugh, feeling as naà ¯ve as Cody. â€Å"What’s that mean exactly? I’ve heard of summoning, but that’s about it. I don’t know any specifics. I don’t know anyone it’s happened to.† Peter nodded. â€Å"Me either, but I know what it is. Basically, a powerful human calls and binds a demon to his or her will. That human can then imprison and control the demon.† â€Å"Like Marlowe’s Dr. Faustus .† We all turned to stare at Cody. Citing highbrow literary references was usually my thing, not his. â€Å"What?† he asked, looking uncomfortable under our scrutiny. â€Å"I had to read it in high school.† I looked back at Peter. â€Å"Okay, we’re immortal, and we could never even scratch a demon. How could a human control one?† â€Å"Humans who use magic wield a different kind of power than immortals. Besides, from what I’ve heard, those who summon demons often have help,† explained Peter. He glanced at Hugh for confirmation. â€Å"From another demon,† the imp said. â€Å"Whoa. Let’s go back to the part about controlling demons. What exactly is this human making Jerome do?† asked Cody. â€Å"Probably nothing,† said Hugh. â€Å"Or else someone would have found him by now. My guess is he’s just being hidden.† Cody frowned. â€Å"Why? If you’ve got a pet demon, why not use him? Otherwise, what’s the point?† It all came together now. â€Å"To get him out of the picture,† I said slowly. â€Å"That’s it. The final piece in all this weird demon intrigue. That’s what all the misdirection was building toward.† â€Å"Right. Cedric gets rid of Jerome, and suddenly there’s an opening in Seattle for a new archdemon. And if Jerome doesn’t return soon, they will get a new archdemon and reestablish the hierarchy here.† Hugh gestured to all of us. â€Å"The status quo will resume.† â€Å"Let’s stick to ‘when’ he returns and not ‘if,'† I said. â€Å"And I don’t think Cedric’s behind it.† â€Å"Of course Cedric’s behind it,† said Hugh. â€Å"They’ve been fighting over territory, right? You of all people should know that.† I shook my head, recalling Cedric’s exasperation and Nanette’s smug look. â€Å"No†¦I think Cedric’s being set up here. If you ask me, it’s Nanette who’s behind it.† I gave them a quick recap of my observations of her with both Cedric and Jerome. Hugh arched an eyebrow. â€Å"Portland Nanette? She’s hot, I’ll give you that, but she’s not that strong.† â€Å"All the more reason for her to mess with Jerome and Cedric. She’s been worried about them dragging her into their turf war. Besides, if she combined her power with a human capable of a summoning†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Yeah,† he admitted. â€Å"She could maybe do it†¦but that doesn’t mean she did. My money’s still on Cedric.† â€Å"Wouldn’t she get in trouble for that?† asked Cody. â€Å"Only if she’s caught,† said Peter. I sighed. â€Å"And in the meantime, this is bad for Jerome.† â€Å"Glad to see your powers of stating the obvious didn’t disappear with your shape-shifting,† remarked Hugh. I shot him a glare. â€Å"I mean reputation-wise. Nanette told me lots of people have been keeping an eye on Jerome because of all the stuff that’s gone down here-particularly with letting nephilim escape. They think he can’t keep control. Even if he surfaces tomorrow, I’ve got to imagine that getting summoned in the first place won’t look good.† â€Å"It won’t,† agreed Hugh. â€Å"In fact, that’s the other reason I stopped by. A bunch of demons are having a meeting tonight to talk about replacing him. Back room of the Cellar at seven.† â€Å"Wow, they move fast,† said Cody. â€Å"It’s nothing official. Once word got out that Jerome was gone, every demon maneuvering for power moved in like that.† Hugh snapped his fingers. I refrained from pointing out that all demons were maneuvering for power as a general rule. â€Å"They’re mostly just here to assert themselves-show how tough they are, cozy up to Grace and Mei. They might try to schmooze us a little, actually.† â€Å"Why? We don’t have any say in this,† said Peter. He glanced between us all. â€Å"Do we?† â€Å"No, but eventually someone from Management will come here to size up the situation and will talk to us in their assessment. Everything plays a part. Those wanting the position will strut around, show how they could keep this place in line, and put their bids in.† â€Å"Is Nanette going to be at this meeting?† I asked suspiciously. â€Å"Yes,† said Hugh, eyeing me. â€Å"And so will Cedric.† I eyed him right back. â€Å"I’m telling you, it’s not Cedric. I’m certain of it.† â€Å"What, you have donuts with him for a week, and now you guys are BFF?† â€Å"No, but I know him better than you do. And I think I understand Nanette better than you too,† I shot back. â€Å"So, you guys†¦Ã¢â‚¬  began Cody, a questioning note in his voice. â€Å"Are you sleeping with Cedric?† Hugh demanded. â€Å"Are you playing both sides now?† â€Å"No!† â€Å"It kind of sounds like it.† â€Å"You guys,† repeated Cody. â€Å"Look,† I said, â€Å"you just want to believe Nanette’s innocent because you think she’s hot.† â€Å"She is hot. For a demon.† â€Å"You guys!† yelled Cody. We turned to him. â€Å"What about us?† â€Å"What about us?† I asked. â€Å"What are we?† Cody’s face was pinched and worried. Like Peter, he no longer seemed that excited about his newfound freedom. â€Å"Are we human?† I opened my mouth to answer and then fell silent. I honestly didn’t know. Hugh glanced at me and shrugged. â€Å"Not exactly,† said Peter. â€Å"I think we’re kind of†¦in stasis. We’re neither mortal nor immortal.† â€Å"We have to be one or the other,† argued Hugh. â€Å"There’s no purgatory equivalent to mortality.† Peter shrugged. â€Å"Hell’s still got the lease on our souls. That’s not going to change, no matter who our archdemon is. Removing him from the equation cuts us off from the abilities we get with immortality, but that’s temporary.† â€Å"But does it cut us off from immortality itself?† asked Cody. â€Å"Can we die?† Silence fell. â€Å"Shit,† said Hugh. â€Å"I think†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Peter bit his lip. I had a feeling he was at the end of his knowledge on this subject. You read "Succubus Heat CHAPTER 11" in category "Essay examples" â€Å"I think they’d bring us back if we did.† â€Å"You think ?† asked Cody incredulously. Peter threw up his hands. â€Å"I don’t know! This has never happened to me before, okay? Maybe we are human. Maybe we can get sick. Maybe we can lose in a fight. Maybe Georgina’ll get her period. I don’t know, okay?† â€Å"Whoa,† I said, straightening up. â€Å"What do you mean-â€Å" â€Å"Just stop it, all of you,† exclaimed Hugh. â€Å"We’re not going to figure any of this out right now. Just go to the meeting and find out there. Grace and Mei are trying to manage things for now, and they’ll know what’s up. No point in panicking now.† We sat there, and I knew that despite his words, we were all indeed panicking. My stomach was rolling, but this time, it wasn’t a reaction to the severing of my bond with Hell. This was born of pure terror. When things were bad in my life-particularly after Seth and I had broken up-there had been times when I’d hated immortality. Death had sounded appealing. I honestly hadn’t been able to fathom how I could endure the centuries to come and had envied the finite life spans of humans. But now? Faced with the idea that I could actually die? Suddenly, desperately, I wanted to cling to my immortality with every scrap of my strength. Death was bleak, dark, and frightening. All the world’s dangers descended on me at once, all the things I’d hitherto been able to ignore. Car accidents. Electrocution. Bird flu. The world was no longer safe. If the vampires felt any such fears, they apparently decided it wasn’t going to get in the way of their last few days as free men. They rose as one and made motions to leave. â€Å"Well, if Jerome’s going to get replaced with or without us, then there’s no point sitting and moping,† said Peter. â€Å"We got cut off without warning,† I told him. â€Å"We could get reconnected to Hell’s circuit board just as suddenly, you know. Aren’t you a little nervous about getting caught out in the sun?† â€Å"They’re not going to make any decisions in the next five hours,† said Peter brashly-too brashly, I thought. He paused a moment, his gaze drifting to my window and the blue sky beyond it. There, in his dark eyes, I saw the tiniest, tiniest bit of longing. It occurred to me then just how much he must have missed the sun these last thousand years or so. Like the rest of us, he’d willingly sold his soul for immortality. Along with that, he’d gotten superhuman strength and speed in exchange for a dependency on blood, a denial of sunlight, and a job as a dispenser of fear and nightmares. I certainly had regrets about my hellish deal some days; no doubt he did too. And maybe, despite his lax, overconfident attitude about the sun, he truly was aware of the risk of getting fried-and thought it was worth it after all this time. He and Cody left, leaving me and a still bleak-looking Hugh. I gently touched the imp’s shoulder. â€Å"I’m sure this’ll work out.† He cut me a wry look. â€Å"Really?† I laughed softly. â€Å"No, not really. I’m just trying to make you feel better. I never realized before how much you liked your†¦what would you call it? Imp vision?† This finally got him to smile. â€Å"You always thought of me as a paper pusher?† â€Å"Nah, no one uses paper anymore. It’s all electronic.† â€Å"Not in Hell,† he said, standing up. â€Å"They kind of like cutting down forests.† I followed him to the door. â€Å"Well, hang in there, and I’ll see you tonight.† â€Å"What are you going to do with your newfound freedom?† he asked, hand on the doorknob. I frowned. â€Å"What do you mean? This whole thing isn’t quite the same for you and me as it is for the vampires.† The look Hugh gave me then was genuinely amused and almost pitying. â€Å"Georgina. Your shape-shifting and other abilities are fueled by human life. If you can’t do those things, then you don’t need the energy-just like Cody and Hugh don’t need blood. Can’t you feel it? The whole system’s probably shut off.† I froze and almost stopped breathing for a moment-which might not have been so wise in my current state. † What ?† He laughed again. â€Å"How could you have not considered that?† â€Å"Well†¦because I was more focused on the entire fabric of Seattle’s demonic hierarchy being unraveled. That and the possibility that we could all die.† Inside, my mind was replaying his words over and over, like a record that kept skipping: You don’t need the energy, you don’t need the energy†¦ I shook my head. â€Å"I can’t believe that. It isn’t possible.† I’d wanted it for too long, the ability to be with someone without the dire side effects. It was one of those things you always longed for but knew, deep down inside, could never happen. Like winning the lottery. Or, um, living forever. â€Å"Neither is a vampire going into the sun,† said Hugh. â€Å"Yet here we are.† He leaned down and kissed my cheek. â€Å"Think about it. This is a once in a lifetime-er, eternity-chance.† He started to leave, and then something I’d nearly forgotten about popped back into the forefront of my mind. â€Å"Hugh? Did you get my message earlier? About the Canadian Satanists?† After everything else, a few signs on the Space Needle suddenly seemed absurdly unimportant. â€Å"Yeah,† he said, with a grimace. â€Å"They had a huge spectacle there, freaked people out. They made the news and got arrested. Not sure what’ll happen now. The international thing makes it all interesting.† â€Å"Were you able to tell Jerome?† â€Å"No, couldn’t get a hold of him-not surprising if that was near the time of the summoning. I ended up getting a hold of Mei, and I think she did something to minimize how much the media found out. She was hoping that nobody in Management would notice.† â€Å"Yeah, well, they’re all noticing us now.† Hugh’s face was hard as he nodded his agreement. â€Å"That’s an understatement. Have fun, sweetie.† He departed, leaving me standing there and staring at the door. I was still breathing heavily, my heart thudding in my chest. I needed to calm down and think this through. After all, who knew what could happen if I had a panic attack? Would I go into cardiac arrest or something? All bets were off now. Anything was possible. I sank down to the floor, wrapping my arms around myself, and focused on slowing my breathing. This was all too surreal. I couldn’t process it. It wasn’t possible that I could be mortal. It wasn’t possible that I could die. It wasn’t possible that I could actually touch a man without harming him. Over and over I told myself those things. Meanwhile, Aubrey strolled over to me and rubbed her head against my leg. Reaching out, I stroked her back, barely aware of my actions. What was I going to do? We had five hours until the meeting, which couldn’t come soon enough as far as I was concerned. I needed answers now . I couldn’t live with this uncertainty. My heart started racing again. Fuck. I really was going to have a heart attack. Hugh was a doctor in his day job; maybe I should call him about my blood pressure. Call†¦ An idea hit me then, and I stood up to go find my purse. Producing my cell phone, I dialed Dante. If anyone might know about this, it would be him. He probably wouldn’t know the intricacies of how this affected my infernal standing, but he had to know something about demon summoning. Dark magic was his specialty. Besides, I wanted more than just his expertise. I suddenly just wanted†¦well, comfort. I wanted to see him. I wanted him to hold me and reassure me. I needed him to tell me everything was going to be okay. But the phone rang and rang without answer, sending me to his voice mail’s friendly message: â€Å"Talk.† So much for that plan. I disconnected and leaned against my counter. Slowly, steadily, I felt my brain waking up, trying to find a scrap of reason through my fear. It wasn’t in my nature to be passive. I had to do something about this. I couldn’t wait until tonight for answers. â€Å"Let’s research this ourselves, Aubrey,† I said. The average human knew nothing about the true nature of Heaven and Hell and how we operated. Yet, every once in a while, if you looked hard enough into arcane writings, you could stumble across a piece of truth that some adept mortal had uncovered. Ninety-nine percent of what I’d find would be inaccurate, but an Internet search could uncover some grain of truth about demon summoning. It was a total long shot, but it was the best I could do for now. Only, when I went to get my laptop, I discovered an unfortunate fact: I’d left it at the bookstore. I groaned. Now what? Another plan shot down. You idiot , a voice inside me chastised. You’re a few blocks away. Get off your ass and get it . That logic made perfect sense, of course. Until I looked out the window. The same fear I’d had earlier returned. The cars moving along Queen Anne Avenue seemed too fast, the wind stirring the trees too strong, the people on the sidewalk too dangerous. How could I go out there? How could I put myself at risk? Better to stay in here where it was safe. And yet†¦how could I wait around? I was going to go crazy if I sat here. Glancing down at Aubrey, I saw her watching me with her green eyes. She had that infinitely wise look cats had sometimes. It wasn’t exactly encouraging, but it soothed me a little. Okay. I could do this. I found my coat and started to shape-shift my messy hair into a neat arrangement-except, of course, I immediately realized I couldn’t shape-shift it. Not a problem, I assured myself. I did my hair all the time when I wasn’t in a rush. This was no different. With a quick dash to the restroom, I brushed my hair into a sleek ponytail and prepared to face the world. Stepping outdoors, I was blasted with stimuli. I stood on the steps to my building, shell-shocked and unable to move. This had never happened to me. Never, never had I been afraid of the world. I’d always rejoiced in it and been eager to see what it had to offer. Slipping my hand into my purse, I reached for my cigarettes, seeking them like a safety blanket. When I took them out, I realized something else. I wasn’t necessarily immune to them anymore. This stasis probably wouldn’t last long†¦but how could I risk it? How could I expose myself to carcinogens when I had no idea how vulnerable I truly was? Putting the cigarettes back, I took a deep breath and plunged forward. The distance to the store was barely three blocks, but it felt like miles. I walked as far away as I could from traffic and flinched each time someone passed me. When I finally reached the intersection to cross over to Emerald City, I was sweating. Queen Anne Avenue is not an overly crazy road. This particular spot had three lanes and steady traffic, with a moderate speed of 30 (which meant people could usually be found going 35?C40). Nonetheless, standing there, I might as well have been trying to cross I-5 itself, with five lanes racing in each direction. The crosswalk was red, giving me time to build up courage and remind myself that I’d crossed here hundreds of times-jaywalking more often than not. I was being irrational, freaking out at things I had no business worrying about. The light dinged and gave me the go-ahead. I set out, each step agony. I’d almost reached the far curb when a Honda turning on red from the cross street suddenly pulled into the intersection, having only checked for cars and not pedestrians. Seeing me, the driver slammed on her brakes a bit more harshly than she probably needed. They squealed, and the car came to a stop about two feet from me. While moderately alarming, this wasn’t anything that probably would have scared me too much under ordinary circumstances. The car had stopped, after all, and I was almost across anyway. Yet, I was so on edge already that when I heard the brakes and saw how close she was, I simply froze. I stood there, caught-literally-in the headlights. I couldn’t think or move. It was so stupid. Seven more steps, and I would have been safe. The woman’s panic over avoiding me turned to annoyance when she realized I was blocking her way. She pressed down on her horn, which was a particularly loud and obnoxious one. Unfortunately for her, it was ineffectual. If anything, the noise simply froze me up more. Suddenly, someone grabbed a hold of my arm and started tugging me to the curb. The bitch in the Honda kept honking, and I think I was nearly as startled by it as I was when Seth yelled to her, â€Å"Oh, shut up already!† His steady hands guided me to the sidewalk where I promptly froze up again, oblivious to the curious cars and pedestrians. Cupping my face, he forced me to look up at him. His eyes were like warm molasses, and something about them spread comfort through me and brought me back to myself. â€Å"Georgina, are you okay?† My whole body trembled, and it took me a moment to gather myself and speak. â€Å"I†¦I think so†¦Ã¢â‚¬  His voice was so, so gentle when he spoke. â€Å"What happened there?† I blinked back tears. â€Å"Nothing†¦that is†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I couldn’t finish. I was going to break down, then and there, right on Queen Anne Avenue. I hated myself for being so weak and scared. â€Å"Never mind,† said Seth, taking hold of my arm again. â€Å"It doesn’t matter. You’re safe. Let’s go inside.† If any of my co-workers saw Seth leading me through like an invalid, I didn’t notice. In fact, I was barely aware of the trek at all until we were inside my office. Seth sat me down and then shut the door. He leaned down toward me. â€Å"Do you need anything? Water? Something to eat?† Slowly, almost robot-like, I shook my head. â€Å"N-no. I†¦I just came for my laptop.† The normal look of timidity he’d worn around me lately had vanished, replaced by something stern and concerned-something that wouldn’t rest until he knew I was okay. He was no longer the shy author who feared looking at me and always gave me a wide berth. He was once again the man I’d dated, the man who’d always been able to read my moods and step up to help. â€Å"Georgina, please. Please tell me what happened.† It looked as though my tears were going to stay away, and now that I was indoors, in familiar territory, I allowed myself to feel a little braver. â€Å"Why are you being so nice to me again?† He frowned. â€Å"Why wouldn’t I be nice to you?† â€Å"Because†¦because†¦I wasn’t very nice to you the last time we talked. Even after you gave me the book.† He made a noise in his throat, almost like a laugh, but not quite. â€Å"You weren’t yourself, not after all those drinks. It’s fine.† â€Å"I don’t know,† I said contrarily, â€Å"maybe I was myself.† He shook his head. â€Å"It wouldn’t matter. Now tell me, what happened out there?† The warmth in his voice, the concern†¦it was tearing me apart. There was something so familiar and safe about him that I longed for right now, and I couldn’t evade him. â€Å"It’s†¦complicated,† I said at last. â€Å"Immortal intrigue?† I nodded, feeling tears well in my eyes again. Fuck. I think half of my emotion now was from the way he was looking at me and had nothing to do with the rest of my life’s madness. I stood up and looked away, hoping he wouldn’t see my face, but it was no use. â€Å"Georgina, what’s happened? You’re scaring me.† I dared a glance back. â€Å"You†¦you wouldn’t believe me if I told you.† His face was still filled with worry, but the hint of a smile turned up the edges of his lips. â€Å"Can you seriously believe that after half the stuff I’ve seen you go through? Try me.† â€Å"Fair enough,† I admitted. â€Å"But I don’t want to get you involved.† â€Å"I want to help,† he said, moving closer. His voice was like velvet, wrapping me up in softness and security. â€Å"Please. Tell me what’s going on.† I wanted to tell him there was nothing he could do, but suddenly, words spilled from my lips. â€Å"Jerome got summoned-which means he’s trapped somewhere and-â€Å" â€Å"Whoa, wait. Summoned? Like in Dr. Faustus ?† â€Å"Um, yeah. And so long as he’s gone, we’re all in this weird state. Peter calls it ‘stasis.’ None of us have our pow-abilities anymore. I can’t shape-shift. Hugh can’t see souls. The only ones who are happy about this are the vampires because they can go in the sun again, which’ll probably end up killing them. And if we don’t find Jerome soon, someone else is going to take over here, and I really don’t want that. And yet†¦I really don’t want to go another second like this either, being in this limbo. I want everything to go back to how it was.† Seth’s face was unreadable as he regarded me for several heavy seconds. Finally, he said, â€Å"Is it†¦is it so bad going without shape-shifting?† I shook my head and began to ramble further. â€Å"It’s not that. It’s the fact that I may not be immortal anymore. I can’t†¦I can’t handle that. Coming here was horrible. The walk from my apartment. I’m afraid of everything. It’s stupid. I mean, you guys-humans-get by all the time and don’t think about it. But I’m scared to leave the house. Scared of what could happen to me. And when that car didn’t see me right away-fuck. I just froze. I was paralyzed. God, I feel like an idiot. I must sound crazy.† At long last, a tear leaked out of the corner of one eye, the final stamp on my weakness. Seth reached out and gently wiped it away. He didn’t withdraw his hand when finished, though. He slid it to my shoulder and pulled me to him. I rested my head on his chest, swallowing back more tears as I sank into the protection he offered. â€Å"Georgina, Georgina,† he murmured, running his hand over my back. â€Å"It’s going to be okay. Everything’s going to be okay.† Those words†¦there was something so wonderful about them, simple as they were. When people are distressed, others have an instinct to want to actually do something tangible to help-men in particular. And there’s nothing wrong with that-often, it’s very much desired. But what a lot of people don’t get is that sometimes, all that’s needed is to hear those words: Everything’s going to be okay . It’s enough to know that someone’s there, that someone cares about you. It isn’t always about the next logical course of action. My next words, spoken into his Hong Kong Phooey shirt, came out muffled. â€Å"I don’t know what’s going to happen. With any of this. I’m so scared. I don’t think I’ve been this afraid since I thought Roman was going to kill me.† â€Å"Nothing will happen to you. You said yourself this won’t last more than a few days. Just wait it out.† â€Å"I don’t wait very well.† He laughed and leaned his cheek against my forehead. â€Å"I know you don’t. Don’t worry. Most of us do far more dangerous things than walk two blocks, and we survive just fine. Yeah, that car kind of sucked, but even still, nothing happened.† â€Å"It’s two and a half blocks,† I corrected. â€Å"Not two.† â€Å"Right. I forgot that extra half one where the sharks and land mines are.† I pulled away slightly so that I could look into his face. His arms stayed around me. â€Å"I have to find Jerome, Seth.† His smile faded. The worry returned. â€Å"Georgina†¦if you want to stay safe, going after him probably isn’t the way to do it. You don’t always have to take this stuff on yourself, you know. Let someone else look for him. Stay home.† â€Å"That’s the thing†¦I’m not sure anyone will be looking for him. Why would the other demons want him back? They want his territory. They aren’t going to be happy if he’s found.† Seth sighed. â€Å"Great. Now I’m the one worried about you leaving the house.† â€Å"Hey, I thought you said everything was going to be okay?† â€Å"Gotta be careful what I say.† Eyes thoughtful, he reached up and smoothed some hair on the side of my head. â€Å"Why are you so brave?† I scoffed. â€Å"Are you insane? Didn’t you just witness my near breakdown?† â€Å"No,† he said gently. â€Å"That’s the thing. You are scared. You don’t know what’s going on or what could happen to you. Yet, in spite of that fear and uncertainty, you’re going to throw yourself out there to hunt him down. No one else would do that, and you do that kind of thing all the time.† Inexplicably, I flushed under his praise. â€Å"I was only going to do a Web search.† â€Å"You know what I mean. I think you’ve got more courage than anyone I know-and what’s truly amazing is that it’s so subtle, hardly anyone ever notices. You do so much, and it goes unseen. I wish I was that brave sometimes.† â€Å"You are,† I said, growing increasingly unsettled by our proximity. I also noticed then that he was still smoothing my hair back. â€Å"What are you doing to my hair? Does it look bad or something?† â€Å"Your hair never looks bad.† He dropped his hand sheepishly. â€Å"It’s just†¦a little messier than usual.† â€Å"I brushed it fifteen minutes ago!† Seth shrugged. â€Å"I don’t know. It’s just kind of frizzy, but that’s probably normal. There’s a little humidity out.† â€Å"Frizzy? My hair’s never frizzy.† â€Å"Georgina,† he said wearily. â€Å"Considering everything else going on, I don’t think you need to worry about your hair being frizzy.† â€Å"Yeah, yeah. You’re right.† I made a face. â€Å"I just feel like I got a raw deal here. The vampires are having a non-stop party. Me? I somehow get bad hair. Not sure the energy break is really worth it.† Seth tilted his head, face puzzled once more. â€Å"Energy break?† â€Å"Yeah. Along with everything else, I lost the need for life energy, so I’m not-â€Å" I stopped. The world stopped. I met Seth’s eyes, those beautiful golden-brown eyes that were filled with utter and complete shock as we both realized the full weight of what I had been about to say. His hold on me stiffened. The casual embrace suddenly became so much more. I was acutely aware of every place we were touching and exactly how much distance was between the places we weren’t touching. He felt warm, so wonderfully warm, and every place he touched me tingled-not necessarily in a sexual way but in a Oh my God, it’s Seth way. My entire body was on full alert, waiting and watching-and hoping-for him to touch me more. He swallowed, eyes still wide. â€Å"So you aren’t†¦I mean you can†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Yeah,† I said, my own voice husky. â€Å"That’s the theory, at least. I haven’t really tested it†¦Ã¢â‚¬  My words faded off because they didn’t matter. My relationship with Seth had been plagued with a hundred small problems, everything from communication to trust and the myriad details in between. And always, always underneath that had been the knowledge that we could never be physically close. Oh, we’d been able to hug and do some kissing-there was even a fair amount of tongue we could get away with before my succubus hunger started stealing his life. But ultimate intimacy? Sex? Making love? It was totally off-limits, and that denial had tortured both of us, no matter how much we talked about love being the most important part in a relationship. And now†¦here we were. Those barriers were removed. I hadn’t tested if my succubus stealing really was gone, but I didn’t need to. I could feel it, as Hugh had said. The perpetual craving that always lurked within me was completely dormant. I could touch and kiss anyone without restraint. I could touch and kiss Seth. There was nothing standing between us now. Well, except for one thing. A knock sounded on my door. â€Å"Georgina? Are you in there?† Maddie called. It was like cold water in the face. Seth and I sprang apart. He backed toward the door, and I promptly sat down at my desk. My heart was pounding again. Damn it. I was going to have to talk to Hugh and get an anti-anxiety drug. â€Å"Yeah, come in,† I called. Maddie stuck her head in, surprised to see both of us. â€Å"There you are,† she said to Seth. â€Å"I just got here and couldn’t find you.† Seth was still in shock. â€Å"I†¦yeah†¦I saw Georgina was here and stopped by†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Maddie peered at me. â€Å"You okay? You look a little worn out.† Her eyes flicked to my hair and then back to my face. â€Å"Did you just wake up?† Apparently, I no longer looked like I was on the verge of a nervous breakdown, which was something. I hadn’t liked the way she eyed my hair. â€Å"Well, not exactly. It’s, uh, been a long day.† I stumbled over my words. I was so flustered, I could barely string a coherent response together. Seth’s presence was like the sun, blinding me and warming me all over, and Maddie was making me feel guilty and dirty for enjoying that sun. â€Å"Is everything okay with your family?† she asked. â€Å"My-oh, yeah, they’re okay. Still just a little crazy, but it’ll, um, pass.† I stood and picked up the laptop, hoping I sounded casual and calm. I needed to get out before I said something stupid. As it was, I couldn’t even make eye contact with Seth now. â€Å"I really just came by for this.† Maddie studied me a few seconds longer and must have decided I was more or less telling the truth. She relaxed and seemed oblivious to me trying frantically to get to the door. â€Å"Hey,† she said, â€Å"I was thinking you might not need to go to California for beaches.† â€Å"For†¦what?† â€Å"Remember our conversation at Mark’s?† â€Å"Er, yeah.† Miraculously, I did. The condo thing, when I told her I had a beach itch. â€Å"I have the perfect solution: Alki.† â€Å"Alki?† asked Seth, confused. â€Å"It’s a secret.† She winked at me. â€Å"I thought that might be a good place to start looking. What do you think?† â€Å"Sure. Sounds great.† Alki Beach was a region of West Seattle that stuck out into Puget Sound. While it was a far cry from a Cyprian beach, it was, well, a beach. And if agreeing that it was a good idea would get me to the door†¦ â€Å"Cool! And what about dancing?† â€Å"Huh? What about it?† I probably looked like a deer in the headlights again. This agitated state of mine didn’t make for good topic-jumping. â€Å"Teaching salsa. I mentioned it to Beth and Casey, and they were pretty excited.† â€Å"Oh. Yeah. Sure. I can do that.† I was seriously about to agree to anything to escape. Her face lit up. â€Å"Oh, thank you! Is this week too soon? I bet we could get everyone together on, oh, Thursday.† â€Å"Sure, sure, that’s fine.† I was almost at the door. â€Å"Oh, thank you! This’ll be fun. I’ll double-check the day with everyone and e-mail you. If something comes up†¦I mean, I know you’re under a lot of stress†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I waved it off. â€Å"It’s fine, really. Have a good night, okay?† I put on a winning smile and quickly walked past both of them. As I stepped out the door, though, I glanced back and met Seth’s eyes. My smile faltered. A thousand messages passed between us, just as they used to when we were dating. Only this time, I wasn’t sure what any of them were saying. I kept walking, suddenly realizing I had a lot more than mortality to worry about. How to cite Succubus Heat CHAPTER 11, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

Question: Discuss about the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. Answer: Introduction: The North American Free Trade Agreement of NAFTA is considered as one of the most unpleasant agreement in United States. The agreement was signed by Mexico, United States and Canada. The American companies have advantage over this deal, especially countries having many lower wageworkers in foreign countries. In contrast, this agreement is criticized by the American workers, who have lost their employment and getting low wage. These labour unions raised their voice against this trade agreement, due to not getting any benefits from this agreement. Thus, the trend of business is changing frequently (Lahrech Sylwester, 2013). Moreoevr, the North American Free Trade Agreement is not also supported by Trump and Clinton, as the agreement is unable to meet their business expectation and Trade agreement. A number of previous literatures have represented approximately tenfold trade deficit between these two countries from $17bn to $175bn within 1993 to 2013. Due to the shifting of manufacturi ng facilities of American enterprises, jobs were expatriated outside of the country for pursuing low wage workers (Macleod, 2015). In contrast, a deal was signed between United States and European Union, known as Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. Economy and Trading are two key aspects of these two developed countries. Both EU and US based companies has their branches and operates in the other country. It has been reported that the establishment of free trade between these two countries, always have a positive effect and results in reduction of unemployment with a free of cost package. This agreement between these two countries increased the economic growth and GDP of these countries by 0.5 % per annum (Akhtar Jones, 2013). The result is additional economic activity along with additional production of $200 bn per annum. For instance it has been revealed that due to the clearance of regulatory requirements, both the automobile industry and pharmaceutical industry revealed significant benefits from both sides. The trade agreement has also shown benefits for these two countries regarding the import t axes and tariffs. Therefore, after analyzing the efforts by the Transatlantic Trade and Investment partnership (TTIP), it can be interpreted that the agreement TTIP is advantageous to the countries, as these countries have experienced unemployment, lower economic growth and government issues. Thus, the free trade agreement will attempt to resolve these above mentioned conflicts from both sides. Thus, the labour unions of US are not opposing the TTIP agreement (Jarman, 2014). Reference List Akhtar, S. I., Jones, V. C. (2013). Proposed transatlantic trade and investment partnership (TTIP): In brief.Current Politics and Economics of Europe,24(1), 107-122. Jarman, H. (2014). Public health and the Transatlantic trade and investment partnership.The European Journal of Public Health,24(2), 181-181. Lahrech, A., Sylwester, K. (2013). The impact of NAFTA on North American stock market linkages.The North American Journal of Economics and Finance,25, 94-108. Macleod, D. (2015). Review of" The Selling of Free Trade: NAFTA, Washington, and the Subversion of American Democracy," by John MacArthur.Journal of World-Systems Research,10(2), 558-560.

Sunday, March 29, 2020

Paul Farmer About the Human Rights

Ideally, we can comprehend human rights as unassailable elemental rights that an individual is intrinsically entitled because he/she is a human-being. Also, we can perceive them as being egalitarian and universal. As a matter of fact, these rights can be deemed to be either legal rights or natural rights.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Paul Farmer About the Human Rights specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Human rights are the basis of tranquility, self-determination and evenhandedness because they recognize equality, and inherent dignity all over the globe (Trostle, 2005). This paper will depict the call by Paul Farmer for the human rights to have a newer definition that will not disregard the most fundamental rights, such as health, all-foods, and shelter. To begin with, the disdain or disregarding of the fundamental human rights have led to acts that are barbarous, and which are capable of outraging the individua ls’ conscience as well as the globe’s advent that can permit an individual to enjoy the freedom of trepidation, freedom of talking; and freedom of basic needs like shelter, all-foods, and health. These human rights can be affirmed as the individual’s foremost priority. These essential rights ought to be included in newer definition of human rights. For instance, if an individual does not have a right to shelter, or health, or all-foods, then he/she is likely to become rebellious against being oppressed and autocracy. It can be vital if the rule-of-law protects this (Trostle, 2005). Actually, by profession, Farmer Paul was a Medical Anthropology Professor at Harvard-Medical school. He initiated Partners-In-Health. In his Pathologies-of-power book, he greatly employed consecrating stories about life-and-death in circumstances that were tremendous with the aim of interrogating how we can comprehend human rights. Also, as a physician and an anthropologist, Paul was an experienced worker with over 20 years as he had worked in a number of nations, such as Russia, Haiti, and Peru.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, Farmer argued that the current struggle for the essential and most vital human rights was to promote the social, as well as the economic rights of the poor individuals around the globe. The eyewitness accounts by Paul were passionate. These accounts came from the prisons of Russia and the two villages that were beleaguered, such as: the Chiapas villages; and the Haiti villages. In actual fact, these accounts were employed by Farmer in linking the affected victims to a wider scrutiny with regards to structural violence. Nevertheless, unadventurous thinking that was within the circles of human rights was challenged by Farmer as he tried to expose the correlations amid economical prejudice and politics, as well as the relati onship between the powerless and their ill-health and/or suffering (Farmer, 2003). Farmer was not only angry but also hopeful. This is because he was fervent as well as being authoritative at the same time. Vitally, the arguments by Farmer were elucidated as a request that was convincing in substantiating the human rights delineation not to disregard the most rudimentary rights, such as healthiness, all-foods, and shelter. This plea had a potency that was deemed to be special as it came from a great individual that had already portrayed the notion that, it is probable to have a universal dream as well as a human-rights definition that is comprehensive. Also, Farmer brought health, shelter, food, and hopefulness to a number of poorest individuals in the world (Farmer, 2003). While fighting for the newer definition of human rights, we can say that Farmer was not only charismatic but also luminous. He challenged individuals to face the 21st Century dogmatic and conjectural challenges t hat were regarded as being urgent. This was to be done by linking personified social agony with structural violence but in so doing, the human rights was to be defined afresh. While referring to Farmer’s book that was entitled Pathologies-of-Power, As Trostle puts it, â€Å"Once this book is out, we will no longer be able to remain complacently or rather complicity on the sidelines† (Trostle, 2005, p. 117).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Paul Farmer About the Human Rights specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Idyllically, in his arguments, Farmer gave a critique of the fanatical moral principles regarding a conformist. On the ground, he critiqued the relentless marching of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the drug-resistant tuberculosis amid those individuals that were very sick, the poor, and the imprisoned individuals. This notion illuminated that the worldwide economy had made a number of pathologies to lo se their soul. Paul clearly illustrated that the societal forces that were alike were capable of giving rise to endemic disorders, such as tuberculosis and HIV, which were also capable of sculpting risk for persons to violate human rights. Nonetheless, Farmer was also able to portray the manner in which gender inequality and racism, particularly in America, were embodied as being a disorder or demise or both. Farmer’s book is regarded as being milestone away from an inventory-of-abuse that is hopeless. The examples that Farmer used in his book correlated with a guarded sanguinity and thus, individuals needed new medical or/and social techniques so as to be able to implement/develop them with a more informed level-headedness as regards to social justice. If not, Farmer asserted that the individuals will not tackle structural violence but only deal with social inequality (Farmer, 2003). The urgent plea by Farmer was to perceive human rights in the milieu of the public health an d then consider eminence concerns that are critical and finally, guarantee that the poor individuals around the globe are able to access them. This concern should be fundamental as presently, the globe has been characterized not only by bizarre propinquity that is in excess, but also suffering. This present central dilemma was captured by Farmer Paul. This dilemma encompassed the societal well being and the escalating health discrepancies (Payer, 1996).Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In view of the fact that all United Nations member countries had already deprecated the gross-violations of human rights that had been perpetrated by a number of individuals who were capable of torturing, murdering/killing or imprisoning another individual, we usually ignore the human-rights violations that are insidious, and which are as a result of structural violence, such as: the fiscal opportunity refutation, housing that is decent; accessibility to healthcare facilities; and accessibility to educational facilities. As thus, Farmer affirmed that, â€Å"Pathologies of Power makes a powerful case that our very humanity is threatened by our collective failure to end these abuses† (Farmer, 2003, p. 87). In conclusion, we can say that arguments by Farmer have assisted us in opening up our hearts and intellects. This is due to the fact that it has displayed itself as an engaged-scholarship model, as well as a call that is urgent, and which can motivate social scientists to be capable of forsaking their undemanding disregard for human-rights both at home and away from home. In reality, Farmer’s book has gathered both an activist’s potency and the strength of a thinker. References Farmer, P. (2003). Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Payer, L. (1996). Medicine and Culture. New York: Holt Paperbacks. Trostle, J. (2005). Epidemiology and Culture (Cambridge Studies in Medical Anthropology). Berwick: Cambridge University Press. This essay on Paul Farmer About the Human Rights was written and submitted by user Charity Beasley to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. 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Saturday, March 7, 2020

Free Essays on Catholicism In Irish Literature

, impure deeds, and that’s what adultery is, Dirty Things in General† (McCourt 291-292). The priests hammered Frank and his community with stories of their beloved Virgin Mary and crucified Jesus, persuading them to believe that sex was a sin, causing a total repression of feelings by followers. â€Å"He says impurity is so grave a sin the Virgin Mary turns her face away and weeps†¦every time you succumb to the vile sin of self-abuse, you nail Christ to the cross†¦I can’t help myself and swear I’ll go to confession and after that, surely a... Free Essays on Catholicism In Irish Literature Free Essays on Catholicism In Irish Literature Irish literature involves largely the prestigious Catholic religion among the people and its affect on their lives. In Angela’s Ashes and in Great Irish Short Stories, the word of the priest was not one to argue against and the Catholic teachings and Bible were a way of life. Due to the rule and power of the Catholic Church over the Irish community, sexuality was a symbol of sin, becoming unhealthily repressed and denied in the people. Any sexual encounter, form of thought, or natural feelings were dutifully abstained from, in fear of sinning or becoming a heathen, for sexuality was shunned upon by the Church. Throughout his childhood, Frank McCourt is burdened with the feeling of guilt for his own sinfulness of his uncontrollable sexual thoughts and behavior. He is frequently talking of his worries that he is condemned or that he may damn other people. However, the root of his worries stems mostly from the Catholicism in which he was raised. Although sexual feelings are natural and occur in every person with hormones, he sees himself as being dirty for even toying with any sexual idea- this because of the control the church has had over his mind. â€Å"I know about the excitement and I know it’s a sin but how can it be a sin if it comes to me in a dream†¦It’s a sin when you’re wide awake and going at yourself†¦Thou Shalt Not Commit Adultery, which means impure thoughts, impure words, impure deeds, and that’s what adultery is, Dirty Things in General† (McCourt 291-292). The priests hammered Frank and his community with stories of their beloved Virgin Mary and crucified Jesus, persuading them to believe that sex was a sin, causing a total repression of feelings by followers. â€Å"He says impurity is so grave a sin the Virgin Mary turns her face away and weeps†¦every time you succumb to the vile sin of self-abuse, you nail Christ to the cross†¦I can’t help myself and swear I’ll go to confession and after that, surely a...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 40

Management - Essay Example Since the organizational environment is a complex comprised of different activities and with the involvement of numerous sides in it, management theories help to make sense in that complexity. Management theories enable organization to realize its activities in order to determine what is relevant for the business, for instance, viable product and compliant workforce. Management theories have changed due to different historical and social times and places still addressing issues of relationships of particular times. Thus, at the turn of 20th century, organizations were large and mostly industrialized whose activities were ongoing with routine tasks that were concentrated with the manufacturing of different products. Thus, in the U.S. there were highly prized scientific and technical organizations that included careful measurement and specification of their activities and outcomes. Management was mostly the same, espousing careful specification and measurement of all organizational tasks. Tasks were standardized and employees either rewarded or punished. This approach was developed by Frederick Taylor and known as scientific management theory and appeared to work well for organizations with mechanistic and routine activities. The scientific management theory was changed with the openings of Max Weber, who developed his bureaucratic theory focusing on dividing organizations into hierarchies and establishing strong lines of authority and control within them. Weber proposed that organizations shoul d develop comprehensive and detailed standard of their operating procedures for all the routine tasks (McNamara, n.d.). Organizations run their activities using bureaucratic management principles across the world, managing their activities in formal processes and hierarchies that enable them to achieve stable structures and consistent results. However, bureaucratic principles are slow to